Most Common Hospital Acquired Pressure Injuries

In the complex healthcare ecosystem, patients’ safety and well-being are paramount. However, despite advances in medical technology and protocols, hospital-acquired pressure injuries remain a significant concern, undermining the very essence of healthcare provision.

Among these, wound-related injuries, particularly hospital-acquired pressure injuries, stand out not only for their prevalence but also for their profound impact on patient safety, recovery times, and overall health care costs.

Hospital-acquired pressure injuries, also known as pressure ulcers or bedsores, not only reflect on the quality of patient care but also symbolize the challenges of maintaining it in high-demand hospital environments.

The repercussions of such injuries extend beyond immediate physical harm, as they significantly lengthen hospital stays, elevate the risk of complications, and inflate healthcare expenses, creating a domino effect of challenges for both patients and healthcare providers.

Amid these concerns, the innovation represented by advanced wound care solutions, such as WoundZoom, becomes not just relevant but vital.

Learn more about WoundZoom.

What Are Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries?

Hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs), also known as hospital bed sores, pressure ulcers, or pressure sores, are a prevalent and severe form of hospital-acquired injury that poses significant challenges to patient safety and healthcare management. They can lead to prolonged hospital stays, increased medical costs, and heightened patient discomfort and morbidity.

These injuries result from prolonged pressure on the skin and underlying tissues, high risk patients are typically immobile, bedridden, or unable to change positions independently.

Definition and Stages of Hospital Acquired Pressure Ulcers

Pressure injuries are categorized into several stages, reflecting the severity of tissue damage:

  • Stage 1: The earliest stage, characterized by non-blanchable erythema of intact skin.
  • Stage 2: Involves partial-thickness skin loss with exposed dermis.
  • Stage 3: Full-thickness skin loss, exposing the subcutaneous fat layer.
  • Stage 4: Full-thickness skin and deep tissue loss, with exposed bone, tendon, or muscle.

Understanding these stages is crucial for healthcare professionals in identifying and treating pressure injuries effectively.

Causes and Risk Factors

The primary cause of HAPIs is prolonged pressure on a particular area of the body, which impedes blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis.

Factors contributing to pressure ulcer risk include:

  • Immobility
  • Inadequate nutrition
  • Moisture (from incontinence or sweating)
  • Medical conditions affecting blood flow, such as diabetes or vascular diseases

Certain populations are at higher risk, including elderly patients, those with spinal cord injuries, individuals in intensive care units, and patients with limited mobility or sensory perception.

Prevalence and Impact of Hospital-Acquired Injuries

Hospital-acquired injuries, often referred to as nosocomial injuries, are conditions that patients develop during their stay in hospitals or other healthcare facilities; these are conditions they did not have upon admission.

Among the myriad types of hospital-acquired injuries, wound-related injuries, including pressure ulcers, surgical site infections, and catheter-associated injuries, are notably prevalent and serve as a significant indicator of the quality of patient care and institutional safety protocols.

According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one in every 31 hospital patients has at least one hospital-acquired infection at any given time.

Specifically, hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) represent a critical issue, with previous studies indicating that they affect approximately 2.5 million patients in the United States annually, showcasing their widespread impact.

Financial and Human Cost of Hospital Acquired Pressure Injuries

The repercussions of hospital-acquired injuries extend far beyond the immediate health implications for patients.

Financially, the costs associated with these injuries are staggering, amounting to billions of dollars annually in additional expenses for the healthcare system.

These costs arise from extended hospital stays, additional treatments, litigation, and penalties from healthcare regulators.

Patients suffering from these injuries often experience significant pain, prolonged recovery times, and decreased quality of life. In severe cases, such injuries can lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates.

The psychological impact on patients and their families can be considerable, encompassing feelings of distress, frustration, and loss of trust in the healthcare system.

The presence of hospital-acquired injuries also has far-reaching implications for healthcare providers and institutions. These injuries are often used as key metrics for assessing the quality of care and patient safety in healthcare settings.

High rates of such injuries can result in reduced patient satisfaction scores, damage to the hospital’s reputation, and financial penalties from healthcare regulators and insurers.

Furthermore, the occurrence of these injuries often leads to increased scrutiny and the need for hospitals to invest in additional training, surveillance, and improvement programs. This not only strains resources but also places additional pressure on healthcare workers, potentially leading to burnout and reduced morale.

Case Studies and Real-World Examples

Case studies can highlight the significant problem of hospital-acquired injuries (HAIs), especially pressure injuries (PIs), within healthcare settings.

In one study, hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) were analyzed in critical and progressive care units across six acute care hospitals, revealing rates of such injuries that varied widely, suggesting the need for consistent and effective prevention measures. This study aimed to distinguish between unavoidable and avoidable pressure injuries, underscoring the complex nature of HAPIs and highlighting the importance of preventive interventions tailored to patient-specific risk factors​ (AACN Journals)​.

Another notable example comes from a quality improvement program implemented at Heart Hospital in Doha, Qatar, aimed at reducing HAPIs. This initiative identified critical care units as the primary sources of PI cases, often related to medical devices like endotracheal tubes. The program introduced a bundle approach that included regular skin inspections, frequent repositioning, management of moisture, nutritional assessment, and the use of barrier creams.

This comprehensive strategy aimed at a 60% reduction in HAPIs, leveraging evidence-based practices and a multidisciplinary team approach​ (BMJ Open Quality)​.

Types and Causes of Other Hospital-Acquired Injuries

While hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) represent a significant issue within healthcare settings, they are just one facet of the broader spectrum of hospital-acquired injuries that can compromise patient safety and elevate healthcare costs.

1. Surgical Site Infections (SSIs)

One of the most common complications following surgery is the development of surgical site infections. SSIs occur at or near the surgical incision within 30 days of the procedure or one year if an implant is placed.

Causes include:

  • Microbial contamination during or after surgery
  • Inadequate sterilization processes
  • Compromised host defenses due to factors such as malnutrition, diabetes, or obesity

The impact of SSIs is substantial, leading to increased morbidity, increased length of stay in hospital, and additional surgical interventions, significantly escalating healthcare costs.

2. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTIs)

CAUTIs are another prevalent hospital-acquired injury, resulting from the prolonged use of urinary catheters. The insertion of a catheter can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract, leading to infection.

Factors contributing to the risk of CAUTIs include:

  • Improper catheter handling
  • Extended catheterization
  • The patient’s overall health status

These infections can lead to serious complications, including sepsis, prolonged hospitalization, and increased antibiotic resistance.

3. Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)

VTE, which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a significant risk for hospitalized patients, particularly those with reduced mobility or undergoing major surgeries.

VTE is caused by blood clots forming in deep veins, often in the legs, which can then travel to the lungs, posing life-threatening complications.

Preventive measures include the use of anticoagulants, mechanical prophylaxis like compression stockings or devices, and encouraging early mobilization post-surgery.

The prevention and management of these hospital-acquired injuries are intricately linked to effective wound care practices.

For example, proper wound care can significantly reduce the risk of SSIs by maintaining a clean, sterile environment around surgical sites.

Similarly, effective management of catheter sites and adherence to hygiene protocols can decrease the incidence of CAUTIs.

Furthermore, comprehensive care plans, including proper wound risk assessment and treatment, can also play a crucial role in preventing complications like VTE by facilitating earlier mobilization and better overall patient care.

Innovations in Wound Care Management: Prevention and Best Practices

Preventing HAPIs and other hospital-acquired injuries involves a multi-faceted approach focused on regular patient assessment, mobility and repositioning schedules, skin care, rigorous hygiene practices, nutritional support, the use of pressure-relieving and other medical devices, and individualized patient care plans.
Education and training for healthcare or hospital staff are vital components in the effective implementation of these practices.

Early identification and treatment are critical in managing pressure injuries. Regular skin assessments, prompt response to the first signs of pressure injury, and interdisciplinary care plans are essential strategies for mitigating the severity and progression of HAPIs.

The landscape of healthcare is continuously evolving, with technological advancements paving the way for more effective, efficient, and patient-centered care. One area that has seen significant innovation is wound care management, particularly in the context of pressure injury prevention.

Solutions like WoundZoom offer innovative approaches to wound care management, providing tools for accurate documentation, assessment, and monitoring, which are essential in preventing not only HAPIs but also other types of injuries.

By integrating such technologies, healthcare providers can ensure adherence to best practices, improve patient outcomes, and reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired injuries.

The Role of WoundZoom in Transforming Wound Care

WoundZoom stands out as a leading example of how technology can transform wound care management. WoundZoom is a digital wound management system that offers a comprehensive solution for healthcare professionals, addressing several critical aspects of wound care:

  • Digital Documentation and Assessment: WoundZoom provides tools for accurate and consistent documentation of wounds, including digital imaging and measurement capabilities. This ensures that clinicians have precise and up-to-date information on each patient’s wound status, facilitating better-informed treatment decisions.
  • Standardization and Compliance: The system promotes standardization in wound care procedures, helping facilities adhere to best practices and regulatory requirements. By standardizing documentation and care processes, WoundZoom helps reduce variability in care, leading to better patient outcomes.
  • Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting: WoundZoom’s analytical capabilities allow healthcare teams to track wound healing progress over time and identify trends or issues early. This data-driven approach supports proactive care management and can lead to earlier interventions, preventing complications and promoting faster healing.
  • Training and Education: WoundZoom can also serve as an educational tool for nurses and other healthcare staff, providing resources and information to improve understanding and skills in wound care. This ensures that all team members are equipped with the knowledge needed to provide optimal care.

Impact on Patient Care and Healthcare Systems

The integration of WoundZoom and similar technologies into healthcare systems has the potential to dramatically improve the quality of wound care. By providing accurate, real-time data on wound status, these technologies enable timely and informed treatment decisions, reducing the risk of complications and promoting faster healing. Furthermore, by streamlining documentation and reporting processes, these solutions can save valuable time for healthcare professionals, allowing them to focus more on patient care.

Additionally, the use of advanced wound care technologies can lead to significant cost savings for healthcare facilities. By reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired injuries, improving healing times, and minimizing the need for costly interventions, technologies like WoundZoom can have a substantial impact on healthcare budgets.

Find out more about WoundZooms innovative solutions.

How to Implement Solutions and Best Practices for Hospital Acquired Pressure Injuries

The battle against hospital-acquired injuries (HAIs) is ongoing, with healthcare facilities continuously seeking more effective strategies to enhance patient safety and care quality. Implementing innovative solutions like WoundZoom, alongside established best practices, is critical in this fight.

This section outlines actionable steps healthcare providers can take to integrate advanced wound care management into their facilities and highlights the importance of adopting a comprehensive approach to prevent HAIs.

Step 1: Assessment and Planning

Before implementing new technologies or procedures, facilities must conduct thorough assessments to identify current gaps in wound care and infection prevention.

This involves reviewing existing protocols, patient outcomes, and staff competencies.

Based on this assessment, healthcare leaders can develop a tailored plan that addresses specific needs, sets clear objectives, and allocates resources effectively.

Step 2: Integrating Advanced Technologies

The integration of technologies like WoundZoom should be approached systematically:

  • Training: Ensure all healthcare staff are adequately trained on how to use the new technology. Training should cover not only the technical aspects but also the clinical implications and best practices in wound care.
  • Pilot Testing: Start with a pilot program in one department or ward to evaluate the system’s effectiveness and address any issues before wider implementation.
  • Feedback Loop: Establish channels for staff to provide feedback on the technology and its impact on their workflow and patient care. Use this feedback to make necessary adjustments.

Step 3: Technology Access

Consideration of technology access is crucial for ensuring that these tools are readily available to all staff members and can be efficiently utilized in existing workflows.

  • Ensure Universal Accessibility: Make sure WoundZoom is accessible on all devices (tablets, smartphones, desktops) within the facility, allowing healthcare professionals to use the technology wherever they are, with whichever device they prefer.
  • Compatibility and Integration: Collaborate with IT to ensure WoundZoom’s compatibility with existing hospital systems and EHR, aiming for seamless integration to prevent disruptions and improve wound care efficiency.
  • Device Availability: Evaluate and fulfill the need for devices that can run WoundZoom, considering upgrades or additional hardware purchases to ensure all staff have access to the necessary technology.

Step 4: Adherence to Best Practices

While technology plays a crucial role, it must be complemented by strict adherence to best practices in wound care and infection control:

  • Regular Assessments: Perform regular and systematic assessments of all patients for risk factors associated with HAIs, particularly those at risk of developing pressure injuries.
  • Individualized Care Plans: Develop and implement individualized care plans based on each patient’s specific risks and needs, integrating advanced wound care solutions where appropriate.
  • Hygiene and Infection Control: Reinforce hand hygiene, sterilization, and other infection control practices to reduce the risk of wound contamination and spread of infections.

Step 5: Monitoring and Continuous Improvement

Continuous monitoring and quality improvement are vital to sustaining the effectiveness of wound care initiatives:

  • Data Collection and Utilization: Leverage data from technologies like WoundZoom to monitor trends, measure outcomes, and identify areas for improvement.
  • Quality Improvement Programs: Implement ongoing quality improvement programs that use data for decision support and improvements in wound care practices.
  • Staff Engagement: Engage staff at all levels in the quality improvement process, encouraging a culture of safety, accountability, and continuous learning.

Step 6: Patient Education and Engagement

Educating and involving patients in their care is essential for preventing HAIs:

  • Education: Provide patients and their families with information about wound care, the importance of mobility, and strategies to prevent pressure injuries.
  • Engagement: Encourage patients to participate in their care, such as by reporting pain or discomfort that may indicate the beginning of a pressure injury.


The journey to mitigating hospital-acquired injuries is multifaceted, requiring dedication, innovation, and collaboration at every level of the healthcare ecosystem.

As we have explored, implementing advanced wound care management solutions like WoundZoom, coupled with a steadfast commitment to best practices, holds the potential to revolutionize patient care, significantly reduce the incidence rate of HAIs, and enhance overall healthcare outcomes.

However, this is not just a technological or procedural change; it is a shift in culture towards more patient-centered, data-informed, and outcome-driven care.

To healthcare professionals and facility managers: the time to act is now. Embrace the advanced solutions and best practices detailed in this discussion.

Consider the integration of technologies like WoundZoom into your care protocols to leverage their full potential in preventing hospital-acquired injuries. Engage with these innovative tools, not just as end-users but as champions of a higher standard of care that prioritizes safety, efficiency, and compassion.

We encourage you to reach out, learn more, and take the definitive step towards transforming patient care in your facility.

Book a demo or consultation to discover firsthand how WoundZoom can address your specific challenges and aid in your mission to deliver safer, more effective, and more compassionate care.

Together, we can set new standards in healthcare excellence, reducing the burden of hospital-acquired injuries and ensuring that every patient receives the high-quality care they deserve.

Contact WoundZoom today!